埃及深度旅遊記 – 開羅城門及背後的歷史與戰爭 / Gates of Cairo and The History and Battles Behind, Deep Travel Egypt

埃及深度旅遊記 – 開羅城門及背後的歷史與戰爭 / Gates of Cairo and The History and Battles Behind, Deep Travel Egypt

(Scroll Down for English Version / 英文版向下看)
(英譯:殘編 / English translation by Tanya)

Bab al-Futuh Gate, Cairo Egypt deep travel
Bab al-Futuh Gate, Cairo Egypt
(By Sailko – Own work, CC BY 3.0, https:::commons.wikimedia.org:w:index.php?curid=47128879)

埃及是愛好旅遊者主要目標之一。對於愛好伊斯蘭文明的遊客來說,開羅是一個即使逗留數個月都覺得無法滿足好奇心的地方,這應該就是古文明的魅力。
或許你還記得小時候的童謠「城門城門雞蛋糕(幾丈高),三十六把刀(丈高),騎白馬,帶把刀,走進城門滑一跤。」。「城門」應是縈繞在我們記憶海裡一個很特別的元素,而我對城門就情有獨鍾,彷彿它會帶著我飛越時空。讓人非常訝異的是,我問過許多曾到開羅旅遊的人,甚少人對開羅城門留下印象。對我個人而言,開羅城門象徵著一段偉大的伊斯蘭歷史,怎能不談談呢?
English Version / 英文版:
Egypt is one of the most popular destinations with too many hidden gems to discover. For travelers who love Islamic civilization, Cairo is where one feels they just can’t get enough even after staying for months. This is the charm of an ancient civilization.
A Chinese nursery rhyme, “Chengmen,” sings about gates. Hence gates hold a special place in our memories growing up. I have a soft spot in my heart for gates; they make me believe they can transport me through time and space. However, I find it shocking when being asked, very few travelers who have traveled to Cairo have an impression of Cairo’s Gates. For me, Cairo’s Gates symbolizes remarkable Islamic history,which I have to share.

  • 公元十世紀法提瑪王國偉大的將軍Jawhar al-Siqilli征服埃及、大敘利亞、摩洛哥,建築開羅城門與城牆、阿茲哈爾清真寺、宮殿,法提瑪王國的哈里發隨之將首都遷到開羅,開羅迅速繁榮。開羅古城四方各建兩個城門,北邊是凱旋門出征門;南邊是如威拉門法剌吉門;東邊是巴爾吉雅門迦剌丁門;西邊是薩艾達門甘達剌門。中世紀這八個城門各具其任務,包含保衛居民的安全、宣布軍隊的出征與凱旋歸來、安排商隊與貨物的進出等等。往後的時代裡開羅又建造許多城門。古老的八個城門遺留至今的尚有三座,亦即北邊的凱旋門出征門以及南邊的如威拉門

English Version / 英文版:
During the tenth century AD, the Fatimid great general, Jawhar al-Siqilli, conquered Egypt, Greater Syria, and Morocco. Jawhar built Cairo’s gates and walls, the Al-Azhar Mosque, and palaces, a center for the Fatimid Caliphs. Cairo has then been named the capital and prospered rapidly. Two gates were built on each of the four sides of the ancient city of Cairo. On the north were the Bāb al-Baḩr (the Gate of the Shore) and Bāb al-Barakīyyah; on the south were Bab Zuweila and Bāb al-Faraj (the Gate of Succour); on the east were Bāb al-Barakīyyah II and Al-Bāb al-Jadīd (the New Gate); on the west were Sa Aida Gate and Gandala Gate. During the Middle Ages, the eight gates each served its purpose, including protecting the residents’ safety, announcing the army’s triumphant return, arranging export and import goods, and so on. In later times, Cairo continued building gates. Today, three of the eight ancient gates remain, namely Bab al-Futuh (Gate of Conquests) & Bab al-Nasr (Gate of Victory) in the north, and Bab Zuweila in the south.

「凱旋門」- 開羅最具歷史意義的城門 / Bab al-Nasr – Cairo’s Most Historical Gate:

埃及友人帶我們到「凱旋門
」,這是開羅最具歷史意義的城門,位於出征門的南邊。凱旋門顧名思義,當軍隊凱旋歸來時,會帶著俘虜與戰利品從此門進城,城門下留有許多法提瑪王國曼陸克王國的榮耀。雄偉的大門上面的雕刻銘文中記載了此城建築的年代以及哈里發al-Mustansir和軍隊統領Abu al-Najm Badr的名字。大門兩旁是高塔,有石階通達城牆上。從下向上望去,城牆上留有許多狹窄的武器發射孔,同時也是高塔內部透光的窗戶。十三世紀時這座凱旋門曾經因為曼陸克王國拜巴爾國王顯赫的戰績而風光一時,所有埃及人幾乎都能娓娓道來。奴隸出身的拜巴爾身經百戰,近三十年從未打過敗仗,他對抗的敵人包含強悍的蒙古軍、十字軍、暗殺集團,他改變了當時地中海地區的政治版圖。

English Version / 英文版:
An Egyptian friend took us to Bab al-Nasr Gate, located in the north of Cairo. This is Cairo’s most historical gate and is located to the south of Bab al-Futuh Gate. As the name (which means “Gate of Victory”) suggests, Bab al-Nasr is where the troops return triumphantly with prisoners and trophies. The majestic gates’ engraved inscriptions record its history, like “Caliph al-Mustansir” and his army commander “Abūʾl-Najm Badr.” Stone steps on both sides of the gate lead us to the high towers. Overlooking from the top, we saw many narrow holes on the wall for weapon launching, which also draws light inside the structure like windows. In the 13th century, this triumphal arch was famous for the remarkable achievements of King Baybars of the Mamluk Sultanate, which almost all Egyptians rave about. Baybars, born as a slave, had experienced hundreds of battles and had never lost a battle for nearly three decades. The enemies he fought against include the powerful Mongolian troops, crusaders, and assassinations. He changed the political landscape of the Mediterranean region at that time.

  • 出征門 / Bab al-Futuh Gate:

Bab al-Futuh Gate, Cairo Egypt deep travel
Bab al-Futuh Gate, Cairo Egypt / 出征門
(By Sailko – Own work, CC BY 3.0, https:::commons.wikimedia.org:w:index.php?curid=47128879)

出征門」坐落在凱旋門附近,由於過去埃及軍隊都由此門出征而得名,城牆上方也可以通達凱旋門。出征門兩側是圓形的高塔,採十一世紀法提瑪式建築。過去來自大摩洛哥地區的商人都由此門進城。
南城牆的「如威拉門」所隱藏的歷史故事和傳說最令人心驚膽跳。這座城門是開羅最古老的al-Mu’izz li-Din Allah街道的開端,這條街是貫穿舊開羅的筆直中心街道,將舊城分隔成兩區。如果你從如威拉門往北走,便能走到出征門,直線距離約2.5公里,中間你可以向西或向東行,會經過兩百多個歷史景點,包含阿巴斯時期、法提馬時期、阿優比時期、曼陸克時期、鄂圖曼土耳其時期留下的遺跡,譬如著名的胡笙清真寺阿茲哈爾清真寺以及上一篇文章提到的「侃.哈利利市集

English Version / 英文版:

Bab al-Futuh Gate is located near Bab al-Nasr Gate. In the past, Egyptian armies set out for battles from this gate. The gate also connects to Bab al-Nasr. Its 2 rounded towers on each side were built in the 11th-century Fatimid style. Merchants from Greater Morocco entered the city through this gate.
The historical stories and legends behind the “Bab al-Zyweila” gate on the southern side are overwhelming. This gate is the beginning of Al-Muizz li-Din Allah street (Muizz street), 1 of Cairo‘s oldest streets. Muizz Street is the central street that runs through Cairo‘s ancient city and divides the city into two districts. Walking north from the top of Bab al-Zyweila Gate, travelers will reach Bab al-Futuh Gate. The street stretches up to about 2.5 kilometers. Going East or West from this street takes visitors to more than two hundred attractions, including historical sites with relics left over from the Abbasid period, Fatimid dynasty, Ayyubid dynasty, Mamluk Sultanate, and the Ottoman Empire like the famous Husheng Mosque, Al-Azhar Mosque, and the Khan el-Khalili Bazaar mentioned in the previous post.

  • 如威拉城門  / Bab Zuweila Gate:
開羅如威拉城門 / Bab Zuweila Gate Cairo Egypt travel site
如威拉城門 / Bab Zuweila Gate Cairo Egypt travel site /
(By JMCC1 – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=23417043)

如威拉」一詞是當時和Jawhar al-Saqli將軍一起進入開羅的柏柏部落名稱,這部落的人進城後便定居在這座城門附近。如威拉門建築高聳氣派,寬約七十三公尺,高約二十四公尺,城門的兩側是兩座圓形伊斯蘭宣禮塔。城牆上的通道留有注入熱油以退敵的洞口。由於歷史上蒙古帝國使者因為威脅埃及人而被殺,他們的頭顱被吊在此城門上;許多死刑犯被殺後屍體也會被掛在這座城牆上;曼陸克最後一位國王被鄂圖曼土耳其人殺死之後屍體也懸掛在此城門,因此許多民間傳說圍繞著這座城門。譬如埃及人認為古時候曾在這座城門口負責收取稅款人的靈魂就在城門的東側,它會以不同的形體出現,並在此城門附近飛來飛去,他會幫助人們絕地逢生、幫助不孕的人生育、幫助老處女出閣。
我們站到城牆外,仰望這座古城,似乎了解信仰伊斯蘭的埃及人為何會像華人一樣迷信,我們想:只因為他們都太古老了!

English Version / 英文版:
The term “Bab Zuweila” takes the name from The Berbers back then who entered Cairo with General Jawhar al-Siqilli at that time. The people of the tribe settled near the gate after entering the city. Bab al-Zyweila Gate is about 73 meters wide and about 24 meters high. On both sides of the gate are two circular minarets. The passage on the wall has a hole for hurling hot oil to retreat the enemy. Mongol Empire prisoners were executed here. Their heads and bodies hung on the gate. Egypt‘s last Mamluk Sultan‘s body was hung here after being killed by the Tuman Turks. Folklore surrounds this gate. The Egyptians believed that the ancient tax collector’s spirit still lingers at the gate’s east side. It appears in different shapes and hovers around the gate to help people with all kinds of problems. We started to understand why the Islamic Egyptians were as superstitious as the Chinese as We stood outside and looked up at this historic gate. Just like China., there are too much history and stories to be told!

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