阿拉伯語言的起源 / The Origins Of The Arabic Language

阿拉伯語言的起源 / The Origins Of The Arabic Language

(Scroll down for English Version / 英文版向下看)

(English translation by Tanya / 英譯:殘編)

古蘭經 / The Quran
古蘭經 / The Quran

這個系列的文章,我將簡介阿拉伯語言和文化,希望讀者能對盤據西亞、北非的阿拉伯人有更深層的認識。
阿拉伯語閃語(Semitic)的一支也是保存古閃語最完整的語言。今日多數民族的語言都曾經歷語言革命,但阿拉伯語言史上基於維護《古蘭經》語言的宗教文化使命,不曾發生語言上的重大變革。

English Version / 英文版 :
In this series of articles, I will be introducing the Arabic language and culture to help readers have a deeper understanding of the Arabs occupying West Asia and North Africa.
Arabic is a Semitic and the most complete language preserved in ancient Semitic.
To this day, many languages have experienced revolutions, which results in dramatic linguistic changes. However, since the Arabic language is considered the liturgical language of Islam, and the language used in the Quran, no significant changes have been made to preserve its original message.

  • 現代阿文:經典+方言的問題 / The Modern Arabic – A Mixture of Classic and Dialects

然而,現代的標準阿拉伯語因經歷時代的變遷、接觸不同,民族文化等因素,
與古典語言仍有差異,可以說是介於古典語言和方言之間的語言。今日阿拉伯人在演講、學術研討會、新聞報導等正式場合,以及書籍、報章、雜誌等書寫上使用標準語言,平時日常生活,甚至於一般學校上課(除了阿拉伯語言為主修的課程)幾乎都使用各地的方言,導致幅員廣大的阿拉伯世界語言現象非常混亂。這種阿拉伯語言的「雙言性」困擾著所有阿拉伯語的學習者,也是現代阿拉伯語較嚴重的語言問題。
無論如何,標準阿拉伯語可以協助你在二十二個阿拉伯國家與受過教育的阿拉伯人溝通,不致於有太大的地域差異。

English Version / 英文版 :
However, over time, cultural influences, and other factors, modern Arabic is still more or less different from its classic version. The Arabic language today can be described as a mix between its classical version and dialects. Today, Arabs use the standard language for formal occasions such as delivering speeches, academic seminars, news reports, and formal writing for books, newspapers, magazines, etc. Dialects are used in daily lives, or even in school (except for courses majoring in Arabic). The use of various dialects has led to a confusing phenomenon in the vast Arab language world, especially for Arabic learners, it has become a significant problem.
Despite these issues, standard Arabic language can still help communicate with educated Arabs in the 22 Arab countries.

  • 阿拉伯文字最早發現 / The Earliest Discovery of Written Arabic:

由於阿拉伯民族沙漠遊牧民族,其文字書寫起源較其他閃族較晚。一般學者判斷阿拉伯文字是借用另一支閃語──亞蘭字母(Aramic)拼寫阿拉伯語音而成。與今日阿拉伯文字相符合的遺跡,最早可推溯到公元 328 年雕刻在希拉(al-Ḥirah)國王伊姆.蓋斯(Imru’ al-Qays)墓碑上的銘文。

English Version / 英文版 :
Since the Arabs contain Bedouins’ population, their written language originated relatively later than other Semitic languages. Scholars believe that written Arabic is derived from another Semitic script called the Aramaic alphabet. The earliest discovery of modern written Arabic can be traced back to the inscription carved on the tombstone of King ImrualQays ibnAmr of al-Ḥirah in 328 AD.

 

  • 今日的標準阿拉伯語 / The Modern Arabic Language:

今日的標準阿拉伯語大多數源自伊斯蘭先知穆罕默德所屬的北阿拉伯古萊仕族(Quraysh)語言。《古蘭經》中有如下經文:「我確將它降示為阿拉伯文的古蘭經,希望你們明瞭。」(12:2) ,此節經文決定了阿拉伯語文一千多年來維持穩定、甚少演變的狀態。阿拉伯語文在穆斯林的心目中就是古蘭經語文,神聖不可改變。

古蘭經 (12:2)/ The Quran(12:2)
古蘭經 (12:2)/
The Quran(12:2)

English Version / 英文版 :
Today’s standard Arabic is mostly derived from North Arabia‘s Quraysh, an Arab tribe which the Islamic prophet Muhammad belongs to.
. The Quran contains the following verses: “We have sent it down as an Arabic Qur’an that you might understand.” (12:2). This verse demonstrates how the Arabic language has remained stable for more than a thousand years and has undergone minimum changes. The language is used in the Quran; hence, it remains sacred and cannot be changed in Muslims‘ minds.

  • 阿拉伯文隨者穆斯林進入鼎盛時代 / The Rise of Arabic Language along with Islam

世界各地的穆斯林,無論其種族、血統,都必須使用阿拉伯語誦讀古蘭經。隨著伊斯蘭國家數目逐漸的增加,穆斯林人數至今已占世界人口四分之一,除了二十二個阿拉伯國家的人民使用阿拉伯語文之外,它更是世界各地穆斯林的宗教語言,阿拉伯語也成為聯合國官方語言之一。

English Version / 英文版 :
Regardless of race or origin, Muslims across the world must use Arabic to recite the Quran. Withe gradually increased Islamic countries, the number of Muslims is now accounted for a widespread of nearly a quarter of the world’s population. In addition to the 22 Arab countries, it is also the liturgical language of Muslims worldwide. Arabic has also been listed as one of the official languages in the United Nations.

 

然而,這些阿拉伯國家的人民平常生活用語是各地不同的方言。阿拉伯方言

非常複雜,並非全然根據國家而分。大體而言,阿拉伯方言分為貝都因和城市兩大類方言。城市方言又分成東、西方方言,而貝都因方言無論東、西方,都頗相近。東、西方方言約可細分如下:埃及方言、尼羅河方言(如蘇丹、查德)、大敘利亞方言(如黎巴嫩、敘利亞、約旦、巴勒斯坦)、伊拉克方言、阿拉伯半島方言(包含海灣方言、沙烏地方言、葉門方言)、大摩洛哥方言(如摩洛哥、阿爾及利亞、利比亞、突尼西亞、安達魯斯)、貝都因方言(包含利比亞貝都因、哈山族貝都因、海灣貝都因、內志貝都因、沙漠貝都因)等。

 

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