阿拉伯人筆下的情與慾 / Lust and Love in Arabic literature

Lust and Love in Arabic Literature / 阿拉伯人筆下的情與慾

(Scroll down for English version / 英文版向下看)

(英譯:殘編 /English translation by Tanya)

1985年《一千零一夜》被控語言淫穢、違反傳統禮教和埃及社會道德標準,震驚文壇,許多著名的律師、醫師和文人挺身而出,為它辯護。2010年《一千零一夜》再度被提告,理由大同小異,都是部分文辭露骨淫穢,違反宗教與道德,並影響東西方人們的價值觀。兩次事件最終結果都因《一千零一夜》是阿拉伯珍貴的文學遺產,曾啟發世界著名的文人、藝術家的想像力和創造力,也是許多世界藝術作品的源頭,而被判無罪。此事件除了讓人感慨文學表達的自由度今非昔比之外,也反映阿拉伯文學在處理愛情與兩性關係上,享有一定的自由,非宗教或社會道德所能束縛。

1001夜中文譯本 /1001 Nights Chinese version
1001夜中文譯本 /1001 Nights Chinese version

English Version / 英文版:
in 1985, “One Thousand and One Nights” (often known as the Arabian Nights) faced legal banning for its obscene material in Egyptian moral values and shocked the literary world. Many known lawyers, doctors, and scholars came forward to defend it. In 2010, “One Thousand and One Nights” was sued again for similar reasons. Both cases were found not guilty because the literary classic was considered a precious Arab literary heritage that inspired many world-renowned writers and artists and was also the source of many artworks. The incidents show how the freedom of expression in literature has changed and reflects that religion or social morality does not restrict Arabic literature regarding love and relationships.

自古有很多對「性」直白的阿拉伯文作品流傳下來,文體包含詩、散文和故事。伊斯蘭興起之前的詩歌中處處可見對情慾的表達,譬如al-A‘shā的詩:「我與美女互通性愛,歡樂無比。每個白皙豐盈女孩,羊奶般雪白的嫩膚,一旦困倦就寢,立即獻身共眠人。」又如Imru’ al-Qays在他的詩中說:「難得的一天,難得的夜晚,我玩了一個彷如雕像的柔情少女。她的臉龐為同眠人照亮了床褥,她胸脯上熾熱的炭火,好似遇上了易燃的乾材,一旦同眠人脫下她的衣裳,立即溫柔的貼過來。猶如一雙稚童走在柔軟的沙堆上,平滑柔順。」
伊斯蘭之後亦然,瘋子Qays在描述愛人時吟:「我整夜對她傾訴。…對她說:賜我一個吻,讓我心得以痊癒。她賣俏的說:我為豐臀所苦,無法負荷,它一擺動,便拉扯我的肢體。」

English Version / 英文版:
Many ancient Arabic literature works include erotic contexts. The expression of lust can be seen everywhere in pre-Islamic poetry, including poems written by renowned poets like Al-A’sha and Imru’ al-Qais. Similar erotic context is also present in post-Islamic poetry, like the love poems by “madman” Qays Al Mulawwah.

  • 阿拉伯閨房寶典《香園》/ Ancient Arab Sexual Manual “The Perfumed Garden” :

The Perfumed Garde
By http://www.nnbh.com/base/06/images/0600609006.jpg Derived from a digital capture (photo/scan) of the book cover (creator of this digital version is irrelevant as the copyright in ahej vi är bäst 7all equivalent images is still held by the same party). Copyright held by the publisher or the artist. Claimed as fair use regardless., Fair use, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?curid=5018303

此外,享譽世界且堪稱為阿拉伯情慾文學的是十六世紀的《香園》( al-Rawd al-atir fi nuzhat al-khatir)。作者al-Nafzawi坦承著作此書之後,連自己都感覺羞澀,因為它無異是一本閨房寶典,描寫男女性愛行為,包含男女雙方性行為的各種姿勢和技巧,如何永久與暫時性壯陽,如何預防懷孕,生男生女的徵兆…等,滿足凡人對感官愉悅的需求。作者深知伊斯蘭社會觀感,卻不諱言性愛知識的必要性,表現出阿拉伯文學「樸實」和「坦直」的特質。儘管有許多宗教學者嗤之以鼻,此書卻能被國際視為性學瑰寶,十九世紀被譯成許多西方語文。

English Version / 英文版:
Another world-famous Arab erotic literature is the 16th century’s “The Perfumed Garden” ( al-Rawd al-atir fi nuzhat al-khatir). Author al-Nafzawi (aka. Nefzawi) expressed his embarrassment for writing this book. The book is a sex manual; its content includes sexual behaviors of men and women, sexual techniques, how to treat erectile dysfunction, how to prevent pregnancy, signs of having a boy or a girl, and more. While Nefzawi was well aware of Islamic society’s perception, it did not stop him from publishing this sex education manual. Nefzawi‘s attitude demonstrates the “straightforward” characteristics of Arabic literature. Despite many religious scholars’ scoffing at it, the book is regarded as a sexology classic internationally, and it was translated into many Western languages throughout the 19th century.

  • 阿拉伯愛情哲學 / Arabic Philosophy of Love

阿拉伯愛情哲學的建立也領先世界,十一世紀Ibn Sina認為愛情是內在自存的力量,而非外在的誘惑所產生,是一種生命能量,無法與生命體分離。愛情讓生命體追求完美、良善。缺少愛情,生命體就不存在。Ibn Hazm認為「愛」的初始行為是玩樂性質,逐漸進入嚴肅性,所有的愛都會在達到目標後就消失,唯有真正的愛能至死不渝。他不認為美貌或興趣相仿是愛的條件,相愛雙方必須本性相似。愛必須隨時間的累積而產生,一見鍾情的愛是「慾望」,快速成長的事物必也快速走上滅亡,時間越久,愛越深,短時間的愛情比較屬於慾望的情感。他也不認為人可以同時愛兩人,那僅是五官的愛,非真愛。顛覆穆斯林傳統。他認為愛的力量足以讓一個人改變本性,讓生命變得美麗而有意義,對未來有信心。

English Version / 英文版:
Muslim polymath Ibn Sina was also a world-leading Philosopher of love in the 11th century. He believed that love is produced internally and not by external temptation. He believed that love is an energy that allows human beings to pursue perfection and goodness in life. Another Muslim polymath Ibn Hazm believes that the initial stage of “love” may not be serious, but gradually matures. Most love fades away over time; however, true love can last forever. He did not believe that looks or similar interests are necessary conditions for love. Love must accumulate over time, and “Love-at-first-sight is simply lust. Fast-growing love leads to earlier extinction. Slow-burn romance builds stronger love. He also did not believe one could fall in true love with more than one simultaneously, subverting Muslim traditions.

自古阿拉伯知識分子顯然都認為「性」是人類自然的行為,是日常生活的一環,沒理由在文學裡禁止對「性」的表達與描述,因情慾表達而產生的文字獄,也侷限於政治鬥爭。若無這種共識,歷代的政客與偏激分子如何讓《一千零一夜》等珍貴的作品流傳至今?

English Version / 英文版:
Arab intellectuals have believed that “sex” is a natural behavior since ancient times. There is no reason to ban the right to express sex in literature. Without such consensus, how did classics like “One Thousand and One Nights” survive until this day?

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