An Introduction to French Cuisine and its History – 2 / 法國料理的介紹及歷史演變 -第2章

An Introduction to French Cuisine and its History – 2 / 法國料理的介紹及歷史演變 -第2章

 

(中文版向下看 / Scroll down for Chinese version)

  • How did Italian Cuisine influence French Cuisine? /義大利料理是如何影響法國料理的?

An Introduction to French Cuisine and its History - 2 / 法國料理的介紹及歷史演變 -第2章
An Introduction to French Cuisine and its History – 2 / 法國料理的介紹及歷史演變 -第2章

When French royal heiress Henry II married Florance Italian noble Catherine De Medici in the 1500s, the new queen decided to bring her chefs to Paris with her. So before then, the techniques in Italian Cuisine were the front-runner among the two. Italian Cuisine influenced French Cuisine and let it improve.

中文版 / Chinese version:
1500 年代,法國王室女繼承人亨利二世義大利佛羅倫斯貴族凱薩琳德麥地奇(Catherine De Medici) 結婚時,新女王決定將她的廚師們帶到巴黎。 所以在此之前,義大利菜的技術是兩者中的領跑者。 義式料理影響了法國菜並讓它改進。

Medici introduced Italian utensils like forks, knives and spoons to French Cuisine. Before that, French people were eating with their hands and hooks. Then they started to take their service tools wherever they go.
The tables became more colourful, and they began to use costly service tools. Fruits and vegetables from different regions also entered the Cuisine.
The Mediterranean influence was significant at that time, too. Ice cream, melon, watermelon, mushrooms, pasta and tarts entered the French Cuisine.

法國人開始使用餐具

An Introduction to French Cuisine and its History - 2 / 法國料理的介紹及歷史演變 -第2章
utensils start entering French Cuisine / 法國人開始使用餐具

中文版 / Chinese version:
凱薩琳德麥地奇將刀、叉、勺等意大利餐具引進法式料理,在此之前,法國人都是用手和鉤子吃飯,麥地奇餐具帶入法國法國人開始隨身攜帶餐具
這時,餐桌菜色變得更加豐富多彩,他們開始使用昂貴奢侈的餐具,來自不同地區的水果和蔬菜也被加入了烹飪食材
當時地中海影響也很大,冰淇淋、甜瓜、西瓜、蘑菇、義大利麵和派等料理也被法國人列入菜餚裡。

  • Modern French Cuisine / 現代法式料理:

Modern French Cuisine‘s most significant characteristic was eating slow and serving the courses one by one. This tradition started when King Louis 14th asked his servers to bring the dishes one by one. King Louis 14th brought the habit of serving the food one by one on the table to Versailles, a palace built for King Louis XIV near Versailles.

中文版 / Chinese version:
現代法式料理最顯著的特色慢食,一道一道菜慢慢吃,這一傳統始於路易十四國王凡爾賽宮要求他的侍者一一上菜時。凡爾賽宮是位於凡爾賽鎮附近為國王路易十四所建造的宮殿

  • The start of the French course menu and its order / 法國料理多道菜套餐起源以及上菜順序

Chef Georges Auguste Escoffier, one of the most legendary chefs in the history of culinary arts, brought the new service system: first-soup or cold starter, then salad, then the main dish, and finally dessert or fruit, coffee and a digestive drink.
Silverware was also introduced to the tables during the reign of Louis 14th’s period.
He opened chef schools and listened to the requests of the chefs.

中文版 / Chinese version:
名廚 喬治奧古斯特埃斯科菲耶Georges Auguste Escoffier)是烹飪藝術史上的傳奇人物,領先新的用餐順序習慣:先上湯或冷盤、然後是沙拉、然後主菜、最後再上甜點或水果、咖啡和餐後飲品。
路易十四統治時期,銀器餐具也被引入餐桌
當時廚藝學校興起,他們也聽取廚師們的要求與意見。

  • •Where does the word “Restaurant” come from? /「Restaurant」(餐廳)一詞是怎麼來的?

An Introduction to French Cuisine and its History - 2 / 法國料理的介紹及歷史演變 -第2章
An Introduction to French Cuisine and its History – 2 / 法國料理的介紹及歷史演變 -第2章

There have been several debates on the origin of the word “Restaurant.”
The First Opinion is that Monsieur Boulanger, a Parisian who opened a place to sell his soups in 1765. At that time, soups were called ‘restoratives,’ which means healing. So the restaurant word comes from restoratives. According to French gastronome Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, the first restaurant was Monsieur Beauvilliersrestaurant La Grande Taverne de Londres, which opened in the late 1700s.
However, historian Rebecca Spang claims that there is no evidence of Monseuir Boulangier in any written record or book.
According to Spang, the first restaurant was established by Roze De Chantoiseau, who, by 1773, was running an establishment near the Rue St Honoré in central Paris.

中文版 / Chinese version:
關於 「Restaurant」(餐廳)一詞的起源,一直以來都有不同的說法與爭論
其中一種說法是,巴黎布朗傑先生(Monsieur Boulanger)在 1765 年開了一家賣的地方。當時被稱為restoratives(意旨:「恢復劑」),意思是治癒。所以「餐廳」一詞來自「恢復劑」。
法國美食家布里亞薩瓦蘭Brillat-Savarin)說,第一家餐廳Monsieur Beauvilliers 的「 La Grande Taverne de Londres餐廳,該餐廳於 1700 年代後期開業。
然而,歷史學家 Rebecca Spang 聲稱,在任何書面記錄或書籍中並沒有關於 Monsieur Boulanger 開業的證據。
根據Spang的說法,第一家餐廳是由 Roze De Chantoiseau 創立的,他於 1773 年在巴黎市中心的聖奧諾雷街附近經營一家餐廳

  • What is a Cordon Bleu? / • 什麼是法國料理中的「藍帶(Cordon Bleu)」?

An Introduction to French Cuisine and its History - 2 / 法國料理的介紹及歷史演變 -第2章
Cordon Bleu / 法國料理中的「藍帶(Cordon Bleu)

Henry II established Ordre du Saint-Esprit, the most prestigious and comprehensive knights organization. The members were posting a blue ribbon with a golden cross on it.
•The cooks of the organization were carrying blue ribbons, so blue ribbons became a recognized symbol in food culture.
French Cuisine means sauces. Hundreds of types of sauces are used to make the dishes tastier.

中文版 / Chinese version:
亨利二世成立了一種最負盛名、最神聖的騎士團勳章叫「聖靈勳章Ordre du Saint-Esprit)」,成員們會繫上一條帶有金色十字架的藍色絲帶。該組織的廚師都帶著藍絲帶,因此「藍帶」從此成為飲食文化中眾所皆知、公認的象徵。
法式料理偏愛醬汁,上百種醬汁菜餚更加美味。

  • Who Discovered the Soup? / 是誰發明「湯」(SOUP)?

 

An Introduction to French Cuisine and its History - 2 / 法國料理的介紹及歷史演變 -第2章
French soup / 法國洋蔥湯

Soup was first invented in French Cuisine. It was discovered by François-Pierre de La Varenne, a very famous French chef who was the chef of the bourgeoisie class.
François-Pierre de La Varenne used broth for cooking the ingredients. He boiled water and cooked the vegetables and meat in it, and converted the broth into soup.
He also inventedroux” which is the base of all sauces. It is a mixture of butter and flour that thickens the mix into a sauce when you add other ingredients. Hence, the beginning of bechamel sauce. Varenne also wrote a cookbook called Le Cuisinier Francois in 1651.
In the period of Louis XIV, dishes and sauces were named after nobles and statemen, for example:
Volovan: Duchess of Nesle
Suzette: Suzette was the lover of Gal Prince
Chateaubriand: Poet Chateaubriand
Melba: Austrian Soprano Nellie Melba

An Introduction to French Cuisine and its History - 2 / 法國料理的介紹及歷史演變 -第2章
Chateaubriand / 夏多布里昂

中文版 / Chinese version:
最早出現在法國菜中,它是由法國著名的資產階級廚師François-Pierre de La Varenne研發的。
François-Pierre de La Varenne 使用肉汁來烹飪食材,他將水燒開,將蔬菜和肉放入其中煮熟,然後將原本的肉汁轉化為「」。
他還發明了作為所有醬汁的原料,叫「roux」的麵糊。「roux」是黃油和麵粉混合出來的,當加入其他成分時,即可使混合物變稠。這也是貝克漢姆醬(「bechamel sauce」的起源Varenne 在1651年還出版了一本名為 「Le Cuisinier Francois」 的烹飪書
路易十四國王時期,菜名醬汁貴族和政治家的名字取名,例如:
Volovan: 法國內斯勒的公爵夫人
SuzetteSuzette 是 Gal Prince 的情人
夏多布里昂Chateaubriand);詩人夏多布里昂
Melba:奧地利女高音 內莉梅爾巴Nellie Melba

To be continued… / 未完待續。。。

Read Also / 繼續閱讀:

An Introduction to French Cuisine and its History / 法國料理的介紹及歷史演變

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